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The couple are happy in the early years of their marriage. He is in Delhi when a call comes through on February 20, with the news that Ruttie is critically ill. It was my father-in-law. This is the first time we have spoken since my marriage. Jinnah sat silent through all five hours. Suddenly, he breaks down and weeps like a child. Another friend, M. That was the only time I found Jinnah betraying some shadow of human weakness. The firebrand Ali Brothers from Rampur State, achieve legendary status within the Khilafat Movement , as the crucible in which a separate South Asian Muslim identity takes shape.

As these events unfold, Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar and his brother, Maulana Shaukat Ali, launch an agitation in India aimed at building up political unity among Muslims and pressure the British to preserve the Ottoman caliphate. The agitation leads to the formation of the Khilafat Movement. However, despite an alliance with the Indian National Congress and a nationwide campaign of peaceful civil disobedience, the Khilafat Movement itself weakens, because Indian Muslims are divided between working for the Congress, the Khilafat Movement and the Muslim League.

The brothers join the Muslim League and play a major role in the Pakistan Movement. The Khilafat Movement is a major step towards the establishment of a separate Muslim state in South Asia. His frequent jail sentences and acute diabetes have an adverse impact on his health. If you do not grant us freedom in India, you will have to find me a grave here. Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk first from left , a prominent political personality from Hyderabad State, inaugurates the founding session of the All India Muslim League in Dhaka in Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka second from left , a venerated educationist, legislator and a powerful advocate for the Partition of Bengal, hosts the session of the All India Muhammadan Educational Conference in Dhaka; a session that leads to the foundation of the All India Muslim League.

He later becomes president of the League of Nations. The image below shows Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhar seated on the front row, second from left, and his brother Maulana Shaukat Ali, sixth from left, same row. As Partition approaches in , large convoys of Sikh and Hindu refugees head towards East Punjab, and Muslims flee to the two wings of Pakistan. This photo captures the tail end of this momentous period.

This content has been independently produced by Dawn Media Group. UBL has paid for association with the content. With a proud legacy of 58 years, UBL is part of the socio-economic fabric of the country and has always served Pakistan with passion and pride. This will be a part of school curriculums hopefully. Thank you Dawn! Best paper of Asia. Our ancestors worked hard to win independence for us. They fought with Brits and Hindus. We will always be in debt to them. God bless their souls. Creation of Pakistan was nothing less than a miracle. Unfortunately, the elite of this country has sucked the life out of it.

History of the creation of Pakistan - though marked with tragic incidents at Partition - is beautiful, nonetheless. Partition was one of the bloodiest incidents in human history. I feel the pain of those who suffered but I also feel that God makes everything for good. Great job. First time saw something nationalist.

It will be great if can be put in a book form and to be taught in schools. Malik indian history starts with nehru and congress and then there is nehru nehru and nehru and ends with nehru. Great effort. Not only that the elder generation's spirits are rekindled but I earnestly hope this photo brief gets attention of the youth. Very informative and the pictures speaks a thousands words. Besides their dedication, it is good to see our leaders were so well dressed and progressives in the past. I think the most important need of the hour is to make youth aware of their past.

And this is the same formula by which we muslims have been living for past fourteen centuries. A very good initiative by Dawn, esp. What a contrast in the leadership of those early days and that currently dominant! We all take Pakistan for granted but never forget Pakistan is a gift from God. Imagine being a minority in a nation where your loyalty is questioned everyday. Thank you Jinnah for giving us Pakistan. Please keep remind us as a nation our history over and over again. New generation needs to learn the value of freedom. Also, peace of mind comes from education too. Great one but I'm not feeling well because all time you forget about sir Sadiq Khan Abbasi who belongs to Bahawalpur.

And Nawab who gifted a Rolls Royce Tu Quaid e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah it was he who who paid 2 years salary of Pakistan national assembly and other Government employees and also provide gold to World Bank for Pakistan currency you should have to write about him. Eventhat time all the leaders were Nawabs and well to do families and poor follower were on the foot with the dirty cloth and bare foot check first pic. Seem like instead of bringing change there life ML used them for separate state in the name of religion.

Divide and rule perfectly worked that time. Ok that was past we should learn from mistake and try to hold whatever piece of land left. Udayakumar : the blood shed and killing started last minute when pakistan was deprived of Huge bulk of land that was initially planned as part of Pakistan. Muslims were forced to leave those areas by ruthless killings, unfortunately in retaliation same happened to non muslims populations on other side of the border. Time has come to freshly evaluate the historic arguments presented by the leaders presented in this article.

Given the current situation, were their thoughts have benefited or ruining the world?? Does 'Two Nation' theory still hold water??? Over 10 million Muslims were registered in East-Punjab by the government in Of those over 10 million only 5 million made it to Pakistan. A little research of the official documented numbers is all one has to do to see the larger picture. Too little research is done on this very painful subject. By Partition Pakistanis lost two thirds of the country they had dominated for a thousand years.

With all the associated bloodshed was it worth it? Fight has not ended. Now Pakistan has to fight with radicalism and poverty. Let's see how it happens. Good luck Pakistan. Our politician should learn the lesson of sacrifice from our ancestors in creating Pakistan and now they should work hard without any selfish ambition to preserve Pakistan for the people of Pakistan. God Bless Pakistan. Zafar : "Our ancestors worked hard to win independence for us. Our ancestors along with Hindus fought with Brits to get independence. Buddy if you go about ancestors your ancestors were Hindu too..

We can hate based on political enmity between countries but we in India have Muslims by our side too. As an example, the people of West and East Punjab speak the same language, eat the same foods, have the same DNA, yet they are two nations! And how is a Pakistani and an Indian treated in Saudi Arabia? Is a Pakistani or Indian Muslim an Arab? We are all human beings with different religions as our choice but it does not make us different nations.

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Thank you Dawn for such an impressive and meaningful work. You have reconnected us with the movement of our forefathers and our memories of sacrifices they made to make this country. Proud to be citizen of country a great leader of centuries Muhammed Ali Jinnah founded. Let's fight against extremism, Ignorance, poverty and feudal domination to transform it a true modern Muslim country having minorities equal partners and citizen.

Zafar If your ancestors fought the British and 'Hindus', how come so many Muslims stayed back in India? My friend, while it is important for all us to know our history, it is even more important to know it right. That ensures that our future generations are sown with seeds of hate. Zafar It was against British principally not Hindus. Please don't see things with coloured lens. Good article! May be some points are not correct, rather controversial.

Among two of the tree founders were from Eastern part. Emergence of Bangladesh proved them and two nation theory was wrong. Quied E Azam initially was not in favour of partition he wanted both the religions coexist peacefully. Afterall he was a liberal muslim with very unorthodox mindset. Today after 70 years when i see and hear things about common people Hate - Greed - Corruption and what not. Utpal "Emergency of Bangladesh" was due to failure of democracy in Pakistan and to prove you wrong the haven't merge with India to this day Pictures speak so much more than words.

Sad for those who succumbed before independence. Tears after reading the incidents! Interesting to note that the first visionary, Sir Mohammad Iqbal, to conceive of Pakistan as a separate state for Muslims of South Asian descent, was himself a grandchild of Kashmiri Hindu Pandits. The animosity that pervades to this day, amongst the nations on the basis of religion, ultimately illuminates the fact that these visionaries neither understood Hinduism's nor Islam's true philosophies. The elites, with their princely estates and London houses, benefitted from the partition, but the masses suffered 2 million died as a result.

Our nation and generations needs to know what efforts Muslim League did. The use of name of ML should be legally banned. The country formed with so much hopes and aspirations of people of Pakistan should develop so as to compete with other countries in the world. But sadly poverty, lack of education and medical amenities is more. The efforts of handful leaders is going in vain due to terrorism. I pray God that Pak should develop well so that we have a health, wealthy and educated neighbour. From Dhaka to Cordoba, a fantastic history rhythmically organised.

Wonderful journalistic acumen! Your endeavor to keep the young informed about the quest for Pakistan is highly appreciated. DAWN has once again proved that it is the ears and eyes of the nation. Amongst Punjabis, the first advocates of Pakistan were Ahmadis. And now the Bengalis are no longer part of Pakistan. Muslims from CP and UP are mohajirs. And Ahmadis are not even Muslim any longer. Only the Sunnis and specifically Punjabis dominate. Thank you Dawn. So emotional to see pictures of our hardworking, sincere and respected leaders.

Can our present leader learn a bit of sense from our past? The point by Khwarzami about 10 million Muslims in East Punjab is valid. Of these 9 million or so made it to Pakistan. The remaining one million were murdered by mostly Sikh mobs. By comparison the number of Hindus and Sikhs killed in Pakistan was almost insignificant. I know this as an eye witness to the tragedy on both sides of the border. Texan is wrong. Pakistan was not made by Muslims from any one part of India.

It was made by all the Muslims of India who voted to elect Muslim League candidates from every single Muslim seat in every corner of India in the election for the Legislative Assembly. The borders of Pakistan remained open to all Muslims from India until when the doors were closed by the latter fearing brain drain. Im so embarrassed to be a Pakistani that I was not able to stop, thugs ruining my country.

Oh, please God forgive me. Cyand and Utpal. We Indians and Pakistanis usually forget a third angle to partition and that is Bangladesh. Bangladesh owes its existence to partition and although it separated from Pakistan but she also did not join back india despite having cultural and social links with West Bengal and N. E India thus proving that 2 nation theory is still alive.

As per the resolution, BD and pakistan were meant to be two separate countries, an idea which was alive till when H S Suharwardhy and Sarat chandra bose wanted a united independent bengal which had the blessing of ML as well , however as August approached, things changed drastically in Biriths india and a unified one country of pakistan was formed.

Plus present day areas of BD and Pakistan were the least developed areas of british india and had they remained a part of india, whatever development which has happened in these areas may not have happened to that extent as they were far flunged and border areas. Thank you DAWN for showing us the faces of our leaders, who were honest, sincere, devoted and dedicated who united the Muslim Ummah to win the freedom. Our leaders today, unfortunately, are more interested to divide the nation into Punjabi, Sindhi, Pathan, Baluch and Mohajir groups for their own political gains.

The world war II had come to an end by then, could someone give approximate figure of displaced people and that of killed directly or indirectly as a consequence of the WW II? Likewise, figures of displaced persons and those killed subsequent to division or partition of India till date for comparison covering India Pakistan Wars, breach or violation of LOC and of course, break up of Pakistan by way of Creation of Bangla Desh! Last but not the least is the on going act of terrorist responsible for displacement and deaths in millions! The figures will give an assessment as to the real cost in terms of humans and humanity paid for as the consequence of Partition, Break-up or Division of India!

Wish though that though so many innocent lives didn't have to be lost for the sake of "freedom". Why couldn't there be Unity in the One Country pre partition. I suppose ppl are now satisfied knowing that there are two countries post partition that are still fighting each other. I really don't think this has benefited either of the two nations.

I wonder what if there was No partition? It was more of a power struggle btw the leaders back then and its still happening in both countries. Very good piece of writing about pre partition of indo pak I wonder if it ever crossed these great minds that they were creating a country for Zardari, Sharif, Fazlul, Rehman, Dar, Balochi Sardars and so on?

Wise people admit their mistakes and move on. We are its living victims. And we don't know how to correct our path for the fear of loss of face. Ruttie Jinnah died of Lung Cancer in France. I attribute her death to Secondhand Smoke. Your story does not mention about Jinnah's use of tobacco. We lost Mrs. Kamala Nehru who died in Switzerland on account of Lung Cancer. Most Indians are not informed about Nehru's use of tobacco. Medical community was unaware of the dangers of Secondhand Smoke.

Due to lack of proper diagnostic tools, in both cases, the doctors missed arriving at correct diagnosis. Secondhand Smoke poses danger as Lung Cancer deadly disease. I understand the tragedy and futility of Partition from the pain endured by these two young, innocent ladies who lived under the shadow of their husbands with no real protection. I am not surprised to read that about two million human lives were lost as our leaders failed to protect the lives of their own family members. Now they are sovereign country and everywhere they are respected.

From Dhaka, Bangladesh : Attentively readout the article. Question remains : whether division of India was essential or Greater India was the correct option.

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Thanks The Dawn for the depicting the past history. Very diversified, talented, thoughtful and matured leaders as they all look from these pictures. This is the only way go forward, open minded, accepting others irrespective of their beliefs, who they married Jinnah married to very beautiful Parsi girl , so does other Johar brothers married to British girls.

They had the wisdom, tolerance and the vision. That has completely diluted over 70 years period. Pakistan still produces best brains and most beautiful people in the world. However, It was a norm in elites to smoke tobacco at that time. However, British should have done a smooth migration So please share the tragedy of death to British of that time also. We are two diametrically opposite culture and philosophies.

It is wise to acknowledge that and part our ways. We just need to figure out how to live peacefully as neighbors. Unfortunately, smoking tobacco was not considered a health hazard at that time and so second hand smoke was even less of a hazard to members of a family, including children. Incidentally, as a witness to the mayhem at the birth of the nation I was 13 at the time in Karachi , I wonder why the leaders on both sides did not have a plan of action to prevent the senseless slaughter that followed. They discussed the possibility but in their haste to satisfy their followers they did nothing.

History honors the few who created a new nation; the more than two million who died as a result and gained nothing are forgotten. Congrats those who - made Pakistan - are reason for Millions of deaths. The partition movement among Muslims was led by a coterie of rich aristocrats who wanted to preserve their power post Similarly, the Congress readily accepted partition because it felt that the only way they can hold on to unchallenged power is by letting Muslims have their Pakistan, and preserving as much of Hindu India as possible.

While the rich and powerful got what they wanted, the poor and uneducated were exploited on both sides. First, as the foot-soldiers of the respective nationalist movements with slogans like "Vande Mataram" and "Pakistan zindabad" merely mirror images of each other. And later, as cannon fodder during the partition violence, when a million perished- again, mostly the poor The rich government employees on both sides got comfortable job transfers and plush properties as "compensation".

Miss Ruttie's part exceptionally effective presenting insight to the rare side of the Founder who is always shown as an stern personality but he had an extremely loving side too. Thumbs up dawn!!! India Pakistan would have been together Great compilation indeed!


One sensible and rational comment amidst myriads of self deception and fanaticism around false idols. Among many incorrect things that have been taught to you in history this is just one of them. Muslims were against to British rule about what they did to Ottoman empire but were least concerned about what was happening in their own country. And post Cabinet Mission Plan when independence was imminent jumped on to the division of India. Can anyone throw light on what Muslim League did for striving towards independence of India?

Except partition of Bengal and India what else is their achievement and well that's not an achievement at all. Agreed, when hatred becomes pervasive, which leads to violence, deaths, destruction, anarchy, the real debate is not "two nation theory" but the reasons on this pervasive, widespread hatred. Take out this hatred between Hindus and Muslims and the "two nation theory" has no depth, no reason.

There are millions of Muslims and Hindus living as neighbors in many countries of the world. There is no "two nation theory" in these countries, because the rule of law is supreme, you cannot harm anyone, simply because of his religion, leave alone murder. But here, most unfortunately, differences are blown out of proportion by many, including politicians, clerics and common people. This does not mean Hindus and Muslims cannot live together, it means we have no tolerance, we subscribe to hate mongering because it gives a certain legitimacy to "two nation theory".

This hatred has to stop between the major religions of the Sub-Continent. The reason for Partition was and is hatred. Superb job done by UBL. Our great struggle for independence sacrifices tell how great nation we were and we are. Before blaming Muslim league please remember that it takes 2 to tango.

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Congress was never bothered about approaching the muslims, she was happy with the status quo of her allies winning in muslim majority provinces Khudai khidmatgars in NWFP, Unionits in Punjab, united party in Sindh etc they never seriously thought of trying to understand their issue.

Plus their own policies like preferring hindi over Urdu and trying to promote ancient indian culture instead of accepting the influence of Islamic culture over india too gave a picture that congress is tilting towards a more hindu india. ML never defeated congress but defeated her allies on muslim seats Congress never won majority muslim seats in india.

CYAND, utpal, 2 nation theory still hold ground in the form of Bangladesh being an independent country and not merging back with india despite having cultural affinities with west Bengal and north east. It is of paramount importance that all documents be compiled in urdu and other local languages and presented to the nation so that the present and future generations know who was Jinnah and why he wanted partition and what were the slogans for Pakistan.

Mohammod Ali Jinnah had many qualities apart from being a great secularist. A young Jinnah, after returning from the UK, started legal practice in Bombay. In no time he became the blue eyed boy of the then elite class of Bombay. It is said that in late 19th century, his daily income was Rs. No wonder, that he became one of the top leaders of Congress party. Because Muslim League was based on religion, he refused to join them. But unfortunately a rift developed between him and Gandhi. Out of frustration he left India. Muslim leaders persuaded him to return to India and the rest is history.

The Dawn has doe a great job. They deserve Congratulations. A United India broke into pieces due to few selfish aspirants of power and money. And even if they did so, they could not make Pakistan a successful state. To all Pakistani brothers and sisters, wake up. Fight for a better future. Better education, development and a better quality of life. India is not the enemy of Pakistan, Hunger, Poverty and Illiteracy is the real enemy. Come together to become a better state, a better nation. Absolutely fantastic piece of history and ver rare pictures I have never seen before.

Where can I find the whole story in one place? Thanks for the priceless job. Pakistan my Indus Valley Land I love you. With good, honest leadership Pakistan can and will progress faster than we all think. Divyanshu Shekhar Rightly said. Praying for big brother India also for success and prosperity.

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Love you India. Down the memory lane. I was lucky to have an Uncle who was associated with All India Muslim league and have some pictures taken by him of Allhabad meeting. Indians want Pakistan to prosper and live in peace. But, Pakistani people have to shed their prejudice about India. Never in the recorded history an Indian ruler has invaded a foreign country. So, Pakistanis should not have fear of India. But, India as a friend can be of great use to Pakistan and vice versa.

And, Pakistanis should be forthright to learn some things about democracy from India, a country that gave itself a constitution within three years of getting independence. Contrast this with Pakistan which got a constitution after 25 years of its independence and after having lost a bigger half of its country. Likewise, Indians can mutually gain from Pakistan by way of bilateral trade.

In the end, peace and prosperity of people should be the primary goal of India and Pakistan. Ah, some tears of sorrows and many teares of joys. It was a timely well coordinated efforts of politicians and leaders of that time, which lead to independence of Indian Muslims , if slightly delayed God forbid the Nehru Group was not prepared to allow that happen, example is Kashmir although Nehru Group promised to held 'plebiscite 'todate no plebiscite done, nor the present Indian Rulers show any flexibility to resolve Kashmir issue. Now let us resolve and work for strong Pakistan and look forward positively to eradicate all odds like corruption,bad governance,nepotism,favortism, and make democracy workable smoothly by making our institutions strong,a true government of the people and by the people, not like government of Kings or Princes.

It is always good to connect with historical facts and events to know our real value and why we are here. Malik Have you read indian history school text books and you should also read pakistani school text books? Excellent Information - It provoked me to read history in a different style contrary to conventional style of nisabi books. Arslan These are great things the great Abbasi did. So everybody cannot be in every article. It is also on to the author. I suspect you are immersed into regionalism, I wish I am wrong. A remarkable story of the struggle of partitioning based on religious fears a tremendous cost of human lives.

History has once more confirmed that humanity needs to accept that peaceful co-existence is the only path to peace and prosperity. Canada represents a good model where pluralistic diversity of religions and cultures is viewed as strength for society to flourish.. And after all that, how did we end up reaching the point where are at now, with little hope for a better future? Sacrifices of creates of Pakistan are being ruined by corrupt, inefficient and selfish people. God save and give prosperity to Pakistan. Karakokram I think the kashmiri pandit reference was for Dr.

Allama Iqbal and not for Mr. Ramesh joshi Terrorism is a relatively new phenomenon because of war in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Feudalism, tribalism and nepotism empty slogans showoff and hypocrisy and hiding behind religion or using religion to achieve personal and political goals became the norm. In short time politics was criminalized at the grass roots. It became a coveted profession of the corrupts as middle class marginalized and eventually disappeared and many millions of us left the country. The story is long and painful as we have constantly seen crisis of character at national and individual level.

We are in denial!!! Not to forget cultural icons like Khwaja Ahmed Abbas, and singer Mohammed Rafi, whose wife migrated to Pakistan, but he himself chose to remain in India post partition, marrying again. The problem really is that most Pakistanis will keep saying " we are not like you people ", while most Indians would keep saying " you people are like us only ". Jinnah was the greatest secularists and yet he was hounded out from Congress Party and then from India.

Rightly or wrongly, Muslims were apprehensive that after independence, they will become second class ciizens.

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In order to safeguard their situation, they had certain demands; the demands amounted to reservation. Greatness of Jinnah lies in the fact that single handed, he created a border, a country and a nation. There is no example of such single handed achievement in world history. This is awesome. Lots of hard work and pain gone to create a Pakistan, take care of this nation and dont let it slip away into a pariah state.

Simply, a wonderful, hard worked collection of great events which changed the world. Thank you so much for this. Zafar It was the effort of Hindu and Muslims together bought freedom Dawn has shown the spirit, drive and resilience of those who guided Pakistan to independence. To the British it was 'partition' of their empire, but for Pakistan and India it was 'independence' from the British empire. Jinnah and his colleagues would turn in their graves at the present state of Pakistan.

Their vision, their goal and their secular mindset has been shattered. Jinnah quoted that Pakistan will be built on secular pillars where every citizen will be a true Pakistani where all countrymen will be treated equally. His vision was to uplift the downtrodden and the socially weak by educating them with human values and understanding.

With all DUE respect, Bangladesh gained independence in The rate of growth in Bangladesh surpasses Pakistan. What good is history, if the country has not moved ahead, and its citizens have not benefited. Muslim Elites fearing loss of power in the Independent India which was going to have Westminster Model of parliamentary system, used religion and poor masses to carve out two pieces from India to be governed by them.

And with the active help from the Britishers they were successful in their endeavors. Now original Leaguers are nowhere to be seen as once they got what they wanted they fought amongst themselves for power and pelf and soon lost relevance. Feudal mindset of founding fathers is responsible for the miseries of today's Pakistan. What a stark contrast between our founding fathers and those that followed them.

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Other than a couple of blips here and there, it has mostly been downhill. Sameer Politics is a vehicle use by the rich to ride on the backs of the gullible and impoverished. Has any landless commoner achieved any political prize in Pakistan? Now ask the question, have the western educated, well connected and rich achieved political prizes in Pakistan? The answer is obvious! This is all fine. As with any historical account, this is one sided. What it does not mention is that there were a significant number of Muslim leaders and members of the public who did not approve of the creation of Pakistan and felt this was short sighted.

The article refers to M. Please read about him and the view of the world of this brilliant son of the subcontinent. There were many many more brilliant intellectuals who were of Muslim background who could see the blunder of the creation of an artificial state based on artificial identities.

There were even less negligible percentage of non-muslims who approved the division of the sub-continent on the artificial and imaginary lines of religion - breaking centuries of cultural ties, just because of religious beliefs. They never designed Pakistan to be a Islamic Republic, they wanted it to be a progressive open country for all. Even they knew then, religion before country would destroy it from within.

Question for Indians. Who never wanted divided India all of a sudden lead a movement for a separate state for Muslims? This piece here doesn't cover the events that lead to the mind shift for Jinnah. The bloodshed of Muslims began long before the partition just because they wanted equal rights.

Indian Hindus need to learn from history as the history seems to be repeating itself again in Kashmir. I think the article misses out one of the most important force for independence - India National Congress and its contributions. Mere declarations, meeting and discussions could not have achieved independence. The story can be expanded to bring out the magnitude of the movement. Ayesh Jalal writes there was pressure from HIndu findamentalists. You cannot keep fighting continously and you need time for re grouping.

Ali Brothers felt betrayed due to suspension of Non Cooperation by Gandhi and subsequently Congress split and some of them like CR Das accepted election which was further sign of betrayal. Regarding Kashmir there are hawks and doves on both sides. Accepting each others autonomy and economic integration can only lead to a solution. Today's generation doesn't know how Pakistan came into being and how much sacrifices were given tro achieve it.

In hindsight- division of the country into India and Pakistan is good in the long run The ideologies, philosophies and the behavioral is too diverse. So its better that it has got compartmentalized into Muslim country and another as largely Hindu country. So whatever happened, God Almighty did for good in the long run. Creation of Pakistan was beneficial to India in the long run We should pray and remember our past and work hard for our future so that our future may proud us as we today for past.

Every Indian, specially people like Modi, has to understand that and has to accept Pakistan whole-heartedly. That will help them to live peacefully and let the region live peacefully. Amar right,,i wonder why did they added these picture or other pictures in pakistan studies books. This article, painstakingly researched and written us an absolute delight but it fails to highlight the British treachery bordering on a deep conspiracy to devide 2 communities that resulted in loss of millions of innocent's lives. Many still hold that the 2 nation theory has failed miserably as both countries are the arch enemies of each other that has thwarted the peace and prosperity of their toiling masses, majority of whom are mired in poverty.

British were the real culprits of our partition. Great job Dawn. It is feast for us to read this article. We people from India are tought to neglect the contributions of leaders for indepedance who crossed the boundary during partition. And same may b case on other side of boundary. British did not want a smooth exchange of population because that would have 1. Partition becomes permanent feature of south asia. What a Great leader Golden history.. Informative Article! This narrative speaks nothing about the more than one million lives of Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims lost and fifteen million of them uprooted from their native lands.

By the way, according to one estimate, out of the total killings, about seventy percent were those of Muslims. This was because in comparison with Hindus and Sikhs, they were much poorer and defenceless. Having seen Margaret Bourke-White's photos of this independence, at least I feel ashamed to be a "free" Indian! When India and Pakistan were celebrating this independence or rather the Partition Holocaust, there was no mention about this tragedy either in Jinnah's speech of 11th August or that of Nehru's on the 15th. Except for Gandhi, no important Congress or Muslim League leader bothered to visit the riot affected areas.

In fact , Gandhi was quite ashamed of this freedom as he neither participated nor sent a congratulatory message on the independence day. On the night of the 14thth August, he was not even in New Delhi, but camping in a riot affected area in Calcutta. As a South Asian, born in Tanzania, my history of the independence movement only included the final struggle in the s. Thanks to Dawn, it would appear that the movement was in the works well before that period.

You ignore the contribution of the British to the creation of Pakistan. Churchill and the British establishment supported the idea from the very beginning in order to divide the national movement for independence led by Gandhi. They went against the democratic principle of majority rule and supported the party of minorities so as to divide India against itself. What happened has happened, time to move on. The generation of the past could not live together, let us see how wiser will the future generation be? Borders are never permanent.

It is interesting that politicians on both sides of the border have always smiled at each other and looked friendly. So why are so many people still dying in border skirmishes? I admire your courage to point out the loss of innocent life in the cruel violence that took place at the time of partition. All those killed irrespective of their religion were human beings who were were neighbours at one time.

The politicians and extreme wing religious leaders at the time were responsible for the million plus murdered. I am sorry to to say that the BJP and its leaders have not learned anything from history, they are still inciting murder and hatred of non-Hindus in India. This is a fact and therefore please give it a thought, because self questioning can improves one's outlook towards others and create love for others rather than hatred. This is a good informative article, but it shows about only the history of partition or making of Pakistan. But at the same time it is also true that Britishers were ruling the undivided India and Hindus and Muslims fought for freedom together under the leadership of Congress and Mahtama Gandhi.

Why that freedom struggle is not being taught in schools of Pakistan. History should be taught in totality, without that freedom struggle there would not have been both Pakistan and free India. I expect Dawn to publish articles of freedom Struggle which started in under the leadership of Last Mugal King Bhadur Shah Jafar and ended in under the leadership of Mahtama Gandhi. Had there been no partition , there would have been no bangldesh either. It is tragic that the neighbours are so bitter with each other to this day and do not realize that great benefits can accrue by commerce and friendly understanding relations.

The main problem of the South Asia subcontinent is poverty which can only be alleviated by not spending inordinate amount of resources on armaments. For God's sake let us learn from the relationship between U. An excellent history of Pakistan covering the initial years of struggles: tears, trials , tribulations, all. Thank you DAWN for pictorially taking us into the past. Loved to see our Quaid in these pictures.

If he had lived a couple of more years, the fate of Pakistan would have been much better. Mohammad Afsar I agree with you. I believe the partition of India was a lot due to socio economic factors. I am deeply saddened to read about the violence that accompanied it. How can we forget our shared history and heritage -I be lieve its time for a new thinking that brings in recoincilation and dialogue - to strengthen our commonalties rather than differences.

Thee article does not give credit to British conservatives led by Churchill who strongly backed Mr. Jinnah and the Muslim League in their efforts for a Pakistan. Without British help there would have been no way a minority party could win their quest for a land of their own. What a history of struggle. The Hindus always tried to corner Mr.

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Jinnah when or wherever they could. This was the brilliance of Mr. Jinnah who navigated the movement to the end.

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Here he was founder and father of Pakistan. Sadly today we are divided, lost half of the country and humiliating our founding fathers. Pakistan Zindabad. Excellent Piece Dawn! Well Done to All who worked hard to get this to us. Dawn Zindabad. Pakistan Zindabad!! Can't wait to read the next few episodes. These people are the best of us - the REAL heroes who worked hard and gave up their everything so we can have freedom. I hope we can live up to their dream and create the very Pakistan they envisioned for us.

Udayakumar The numbers do not add up. Of those only 5 million made it to Pakistan. Reast are missing to this day and no study has been carried out to what happened to them. I read an article where an Indian writer highlighted Ghani Khan baba: As a progressive and intellectual writer, he wrote, "I want to see my people educated and enlightened. A people with a vision and a strong sense of justice, who can carve out a future for themselves in harmony with nature.

Dedicated to our current politicians and leaders Where that divine simplicity, commitment and dignity has disappeared now. It was not about equal rights or about special status. Communal card was played to show communal harmony isnt possible and to justify Pakistans creation.. Everyone knows who is responsible for breaking up of muslims in 3 different states and their miserable condition. Good piece about Muslim league. Story of Pakistan is incomplete without mentioning the great sacrifices made by members of organizations other than the Muslim League.

The First Picture on this article is screaming loud to this todays generation of Pakistan that they are happy to see the nation passed seven decades of its independence and existence but they did not laid their lives to see the Pakistan where it is on the world ranking, 70 years on as a nation still being called a third world country marred by political strife and struggling for prosperity and with poverty and with rampant corruption. The irony is from the pictures we see that many of the elites then worked so hard for the independence but 70 years on we see that the so called elites of today are busy in destroying the country and plundering the wealth what ever way they can.

Dawn we the readers, each of us should thank you for presenting the 70 year celebration with this wonderful presentation. I see a cooperation of many groups of Muslims that eventually led to the final goal of establishment of a nation. Alas this cooperation does not exist with the same spirit of a unified Pakistan. Just shows what people can do when they are united. Our so called great leaders were far from being exception of this rule. But, reality is, things do happen and they happen for a reason.

It was started as a bargaining chip to get more privileges and power for those high and mighty within muslim elite of undivided India. But, gradually it snowballed into a mass movement where those high and mighty of that yore used their gullible followers to believe in some dream which in reality was never about the common people. Hindus and Muslims had lived together for a thousand years under rulers of both communities. What was the need to tear them apart with all that violence. Now we have given hatred a permanent place. Iqbal has sung "muzhab nahi sikhata abas men bair rakhana".

Thanks for sharing the history, thanks to DAWN! Safeguarding the independence of the country is a daunting task but we have a nation who stood and rise from ashes, as Ghani Khan said above and well said "Pakhtoon is not merely a race but a state of mind; there is a Pakhtoon inside every man, who at times wakes up, and it overpowers him. If there was no partion as britishers did every where This land mass would have been super power even befor China.

This way imperialist and commies won and India with Pakistan are suffering, just due to a few peoples ego. KB well said.. In my opinion the word "partition" does not describe this events or perhaps it was the general perception at the time. Many years later it is quite evident that what happened at that time can better be described as "liberation of Muslim majority states".

Partition implies that the Muslims of subcontinent were given their share of land. The fact of the matter is that it was liberation of Muslim majority states by first partitioning them. The examples are Punjab and Bengal. How else can one explain the fact that there are almost as many Muslims in India as in Pakistan. How can a Bihari Muslim be given his or her share in Sindh which belongs to Sindhis.? As far as history is concerned this is good compilation for new generation. But this is also fact that if this had not happened, today United India would have been powerful nation in the world.

If both the nations' defence money is spend for betterment of people and the nation, today we together can concur the world. Still plenty can be done for all our future generation. I was a witness to killing of a Muslim, many Hindus and Sikhs. The leaders of that time could not foresee the coming carnage.

Soon after, Mahtama Gandhi and Liaquat Ali khan were assassinated. Jinnah and Sardar Patel died of serious illnesses. Was it worth? An astute observation and Pakistanis would do well to reflect on it during this 70th anniversary. The lessons they draw from it may decide the future decades to come. It was also an all male construct. Both organizations were for the privileged class in the respective communities, sans the common man. Also, the initial purpose in both the cases was to have better and congenial relations with ruling whites.

ML, however, continued , even after the Partition, to be dominated by the rich and feudal. It still continues to do so. This is a fantastic and gripping portrayal of events prior to partition. Partition became inivitable with passage of time from Was it avoidable? Was there any other solution.

What does history beckon to us in hindsight? Why Jinnah could not give shape to a Pakistan of his dreams despite all his acumen and brilliance. There were such great men in the movement. Where have all gone. Only revisting such stalwarts and titans can bring Pakistan to the glory perceived by them. Jinnah had a great attribute of endearing himself with his great personality. It still stands proud. With almost every one reading the name Jinnah Tower and saying my god named after the founder of Pakistan. With out Pakustan with out his devoted struggle for Pakistan i think he woud have had great respect from all in India.

Fantastic, loving it. Our school curricula must capture such great moments and personalities to give personal touch to students and readers. The Dawn of Pakistan is really beautiful. A picturesque representation of Pakistan's Fight for Right. Terrorism, Islamic radicalisation, rampant corruption and inertia has snatched away the hard-earned freedom. The whole object of partition was that Hindus and Muslims of the Indian sub continent will live in peace with each other, this stands defeated.

The other sad part of partition is that it is the muslims who live divided in three different countries now. It is hard to say if we would have been better or worse as a united single country. Although I do not think so, but if it was due to different community, even at that time Pakistan had not capacity to accommodate all the Muslims who did not moved. Very informative and significant. Thank you for collecting the pictures and publishing a wonderful work. I really like how the first photograph is that of vultures eating the ordinary men, unknown and lost and then the so called 'leaders' of that time in their bourgeoisie outfits, celebrated and victorious.

Zafar Hindus fought Muslims and Muslims fought Hindus. Both sides should be ashamed of killing each other. Lei, the naive country girl who became a royal courtesan, is now known as the Moonchosen, the commoner who managed to do what no one else could.

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